Salbutamol is a β2-selective adreno-receptor agonist that has demonstrated bronchodilatory effects. Salbutamol uses and effects are mentioned below-
It’s used in children, adolescents, and adults too.
- Prevention and treatment of reversible obstructive airways disease, particularly Asthma
- Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
- It can also be given by injection, e.g. in asthma when the inhaler doesn’t reduce symptoms, premature labour (β2 receptor) and cardiac inotropic (β1) effect in heart failure (where the β2-vasodilator action is also useful).
- To prevent bronchoconstriction due to a trigger such as exercise or exposure to pets.
- Though it can be given through oral and parenteral (injection) routes the most effective and the best route of administration is inhalation.
- By inhalation, drug action begins in about 10-15 minutes and the peak effect is usually within 30 minutes.
- Patient experience prompt benefit with reduction in coughing, wheezing, chest tightness and shortness of breath.
- As per requirement, 1 or 2 puffs of salbutamol
- frequency should not exceed 4 times/day (irrespective of 1 or 2 puffs of salbutamol, at a time)
However, it should be noted that the use of inhaler more than 4times daily means
- Salbutamol treatment is not effective
- This may lead to side effects and adverse effect
General Side Effects
Salbutamol- Inhalation: Inhaled Salbutamol, properly administered, have the advantages of smaller doses and fewer side effects.
- Palpitations (10%)
- Sinus tachycardia (10%),
- Anxiety (10%),
- Tremors (15%)
- Increased blood pressure (5%),
- Nausea and vomiting (6%),
- Throat irritation (6%),
- Dyspepsia (5%),
- Insomnia (3%),
- Heachaches (3%),
- Epistaxis (3%),
- Cough (2%),
- Dizziness (1%),
- Nightmares (1%),
- Hostility (1%).
Rarely, urticaria, angioedema, maculopapular rash, bronchospasm, hoarseness, and oropharyngeal edema and glaucoma, if the drug gets deposited directly on the narrow, angled- eyes.
Common adverse reactions to Salbutamol – oral /parenteral:
- Tremors (10-20% )
- Anxiety (9-20%)
- Headaches (4-7%)
- Sinus tachycardia and palpitations (2-5%)
- Hyperkinesis (2-4%)
- Dizziness (2-3%)
- Muscle cramps (1-3%)
- Insomnia (1-2%)
- Nausea/vomiting (1-4%)
- Excitability (2%)
OVERUSE/MISUSE SIDE EFFECTS:
- The rapid relief of symptoms provided by salbutamol may invite misuse and overuse, particularly in adolescents.
- Salbutamol taken in large doses can also induce Hyperglycemia and Hypokalemia due to the stimulation of beta2-receptors, resulting in gluconeogenesis and intracellular movement of potassium.
- As an adrenoceptor agonist, salbutamol can in a small number of cases induce adverse cardiovascular effects such as hypertension (in 3% of patients), angina ( in less than 1%), or arrhythmia exacerbation or precipitation, particularly in patients already suffering from some form of cardiovascular disease.